Geographical region : plains, prairie, Texas
Lived normally in lodges made of straw
Language group : caddo
Caddo (contracted from Kä'dohädä'cho, 'Caddo proper,' `real Caddo,' a leading tribe in the Caddo confederacy, extended by the whites to include the confederacy).
A confederacy of tribes belonging to the southern group of the Caddoan linguistic family.
Their own name is Hasínai, our own folk.
History According to tribal traditions the lower Red river of Louisiana was the early home of the Caddo, from which they spread to the northwest, and south.
Several of the lakes and streams connected with this river bear Caddo names, as do some of the counties and some of the towns which cover ancient village sites.
Cabeza de-Vaca and his companions in 1535-36 traversed a portion of the territory occupied by the Caddo, and De Soto's expedition encountered some of the tribes of the confederacy in 1540-41, but the people did riot become known until they were met by La Salle and his followers in 1687.
At that time the Caddo villages were scattered along Red river and its tributaries in what are now Louisiana and Arkansas, and also on the banks of the Sabine, Neches, Trinity, Brazos, and Colorado rivers in east Texas.
The Caddo were not the only occupants of this wide territory; other confederacies belonging to the same linguistic family also resided there.
There were also fragments of still older confederacies of the same family, some of which still maintained their separate existence, while others had joined the then powerful Hasinai.
These various tribes and confederacies were alternately allies and enemies of the Caddo.
The native population was so divided that at no time could it successfully resist the intruding white race.
At an early date the Caddo obtained horses from the Spaniards through intermediate tribes; they learned to rear these animals, and traded with them as far north as Illinois River .
During the 18th century wars in Europe led to contention between the Spaniards and the French for the territory occupied by the Caddo.
The brunt of these contentions fell upon the Indians; the trails between their villages became routes for armed forces, while the villages were transformed into garrisoned posts.
The Caddo were friendly to the French and rendered valuable service, but they suffered greatly from contact with the white race.
Tribal wars were fomented, villages were abandoned, new diseases spread havoc among the people, and by the close of the century the welcoming attitude of the Indians daring its early years had changed to one of defense and distrust.
Several tribes were practically extinct, others seriously reduced in numbers, and a once thrifty and numerous people had become demoralized and were more or less wanderers in their native land.
Franciscan missions had been established among some of the tribes early in the century, those designed for the Caddo, or Asinais, as they were called by the Spaniards, being Purísima Concepción de los Asinais and (for the Hainai) San Francisco de los Tejas.
The segregation policy of the missionaries tended to weaken tribal relations and unfitted the people to cope with the new difficulties which confronted them.
These missions were transferred to the Rio San Antonio in 1731.
With the acquisition of Louisiana by the United States immigration increased and the Caddo were pushed from their old haunts.
Under their first treaty, in 1835, they ceded all their land and agreed to move at their own expense beyond the boundaries of the United States, never to return and settle as a tribe.
The tribes living in Louisiana, being tints forced to leave their old home, moved southwest toward their kindred living in Texas.
At that time the people of Texas were contending for independence, and no tribe could live at peace with both opposing forces.
Public opinion was divided as to the treatment of the Indians; one party demanded a policy of extermination, the other advocated conciliatory methods.
In 1843 the governor of the Republic of Texas sent a commission to the tribes of its north part to fix a line between them and the white settlers and to establish three trading posts; but, as the land laws of the republic did not recognize the Indian's right of occupancy, there was no power which could prevent a settler from taking land that had been cultivated by an Indian.
This condition led to continual difficulties, and these did not diminish after the annexation of Texas to the United States, as Texas retained control and jurisdiction over all its public domain.
Much suffering ensued; the fields of peaceable Indians were taken and the natives were hunted down
The more warlike tribes made reprisals, and bitter feelings were engendered. Immigration increased, and the inroads on the buffalo herds by the newcomers made scarce the food of the Indians.
Appeals were sent to the Federal Government, and in 1855 a tract near Brazos river was secured and a number of Caddo and other Indians were induced to colonize under the supervision of Agent Robert S. Neighbours.
The Indians built houses, tilled fields, raised cattle, sent their children to school-lived quiet and orderly lives.
The Comanche to the west continued to raid upon the settlers, some of whom turned indiscriminately upon all Indians.
The Caddo were the chief sufferers, although they helped the state troops to bring the raiders to justice.
In 1859 a company of white settlers fixed a date for the massacre of all the reservation Indians.
The Federal Government was again appealed to,and through the strenuous efforts of neighbours the Caddo made a forced march for 15 days in the heat of July; men,women and children,with the loss of more than half of their stock and possessions, reached safely the banks of Washita river in Oklahoma, where a reservation was set apart for them.
Neighbours, their friend and agent, was killed shortly afterward as a penalty for his unswerving friendship to the Indians .
During the civil war the Caddo remained loyal to the government, taking refuge in Kansas, while sonic went even as far west as Colorado.
In 1872 the boundaries of their reservation were defined, and in 1902 every man, woman, and child received an allotment of land under the provisions of the severalty act of 1887, by which they because citizens of the United States and subject to the laws of Oklahoma.
In 1904 they numbered 535.
Missions were started by the Baptists soon after the reservation was established, and are still maintained.
Thomas C. Battey, a Quaker, performed missionary work among them in 1872.
The Episcopalians opened a mission in 1881, the Roman Catholics in 1894.