Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock.
They occupied a region in South Carolina.
A large and powerful group, they waged incessant but unsuccessful war against the Cherokee and the Native Americans of the Ohio River valley, sending war parties to great distances.
Fighting and epidemics of smallpox reduced them to a small group in the 18th cent.
Until 1962 the Catawba lived on a small reservation in South Carolina; at that time they terminated their relationship with the federal government and distributed the tribal estate among the remaining members.
See D. S. Brown, The Catawba Indians (1966); C. M. Hudson, The Catawba Nation (1970).