Geographical region : Sakatchewan and Manitoba
Lived normally in simple tipees
Language group : algonkin
Cree (contracted from Kristinaux, French form of Kenistenoag, given as one of their own names).
An important Algonquian tribe of British America whose former habitat was in Manitoba and Assiniboin, between Red and Saskatchewan rivers.
Members of one branch of the Cree, allying themselves with the Siouan Assiniboin, moved southwestward into buffalo territory and became the Plains Cree.
It is probable that they introduced the method of hunting buffalo by driving them into enclosures, since the Woodland Cree used this method in hunting deer.
The culture and language of the Woodland Cree greatly resembles that of the Ojibwa.
They ranged northeastward down Nelson river to the vicinity of Hudson Bay, and northwestward almost to Athabasca lake.
When they first became known to the Jesuit missionaries a part of them resided in the region of James Bay, as it is stated as early as 1640 that "they dwell on the rivers of the north sea where Nipissing go to trade with them"; but the Jesuit Relations of 1661 and 1667 indicate a region farther to the northwest as the home of the larger part of the tribe.
A portion of the Cree, as appears from the tradition given by Lacombe (Diet. Lang. Cris), inhabited for a time the region about Red river, intermingled with the Chippewa and Maskegon, but were attracted to the plains by the buffalo, the Cree like the Chippewa being essentially a forest people.
Many bands of Cree were virtually nomads, their movements being governed largely by the food supply. The Cree are closely related, linguistically and of otherwise, to the Chippewa. Hayden regarded them as an offshoot of the latter, and the Maskegon another division of the same ethnic group.
At some comparatively recent time the Assiniboin, a branch of the Sioux, in consequence of a quarrel, broke away from their brethren and sought alliance with the Cree.
The latter received them cordially and granted them a home in their territory, thereby forming friendly relations that have continued to the present day.
The united tribes attacked and drove southwestward the Siksika and allied tribes who formerly dwelt along the Saskatchewan.
The enmity between these tribes and both the Siksika and the Sioux has ever since continued.
After the Cree obtained firearms they made raids into the Athapascan country, even to the Rocky mountains, and as far north as Mackenzie river, but Churchill river was accounted the extreme north limit of their territory, and in their cessions of land to Canada they claimed nothing beyond this line.
Mackenzie, speaking of the region of Churchill river, says the original people of this area, probably slaves, were driven out by the Cree.
As the people of this tribe have been friendly from their first intercourse with both the English and the French, and until quite recently were left comparatively undisturbed in the enjoyment of their territory, there has been but little recorded in regard to their history.
This consists almost wholly of their contests with neighboring tribes and their relations with the Hudson Bay Co.
In 1786, according to Hind, these Indians, as well as those of surrounding tribes, were reduced to less than half their former numbers by smallpox. The same disease again swept off at least half the prairie tribes in 1838. They were thus reduced, according to Hind, to one-sixth or one-eighth of their former population.
In more recent years, since game has become scarce, they have lived chiefly in scattered bands, depending largely on trade with the agents of the Hudson Bay Co.
At present they are gathered chiefly in bands on various reserves in Manitoba, mostly with the Chippewa.
Their dispersion into bands subject to different conditions with regard to the supply and character of their food has resulted in varying physical characteristics; hence the varying descriptions given by explorers.
Mackenzie, who describes the Cree comprehensively, says they are of moderate stature, well proportioned, and of great activity. Their complexion is copper-colored and their hair black, as is common among Indians. Their eyes are black, keen, and penetrating; their countenance open and agreeable. In regard to the women he says: "Of all the nations which I have seen on this continent, the Knisteneaux women are the most comely. Their figure is generally well proportioned, and the regularity of their features would be acknowledged by the inure civilized people of Europe. Their complexion has less of that dark tinge which is common to those savages who have less cleanly habits.'' Umfreville, from whom Mackenzie appears to have copied in part what is here stated, says that they are more inclined to be lean of body than otherwise, a corpulent Indian being "a much greater curiosity than a sober one."
Clark (Sign Language, 1885) describes the Cree seen by him as wretchedly poor and mentally and physically inferior to the Plains Indians, and Harmon says that those of the tribe who inhabit the plains are fairer and more cleanly than the others. Their hair was cut in various fashions, according to the tribal divisions, and by some left in its natural state.
Henry says the young men shaved off the hair except a small spot on the crown of the head. Their dress consisted of tight leggings, reaching nearly to the hip, a strip of cloth or leather about 1 ft. wide and 5 ft. long passing between the legs and under a belt around the waist, the ends being allowed to hang down in front and behind; a vest or shirt reaching to the hips; sometimes a cap for the head made of a piece of fur or a small skin, and sometimes a robe thrown over the dress. These articles, with moccasins and mittens, constituted their apparel. The dress of the women consisted of the same materials, but the shirt extended to the knees, being fastened over the shoulders with cords and at the waist with a belt, and having a flap at the shoulders; the arms were covered to the wrist with detached sleeves.
Umfreville says that in trading, fraud, cunning, Indian finesse, and every concomitant vice was practiced by them from the boy of 12 years to the octogenarian, but where trade was not concerned they were scrupulously honest.
Mackenzie says that they were naturally mild and affable, as well as just in their dealings among themselves and with strangers; that any deviation from these traits is to be attributed to the influence of the white traders. He also describes them as generous, hospitable, and exceedingly good natured except when under the influence of spirituous liquor.
Chastity was not considered a virtue among them, though infidelity of a wife was sometimes severely punished. Polygamy was common; and when a man's wife died it was considered his duty to marry her sister, if she had one.
The arms and utensils used before trade articles were introduced by the whites were pots of stone, arrow-points, spearheads, hatchets, and other edged tools of flint, knives of buffalo rib, fishhooks made out of sturgeon hones, and awls from bones of the moose.
The fibrous roots of the white pine were used as twine for sewing their bark canoes, and a kind of thread from a weed for making nets.
Spoons and pans were fashioned front the horns of the moose. They sometimes made fishhooks by inserting a piece of bone obliquely into a stick and sharpening the point. Their lines were either thongs fastened together or braided willow bark.
Their skin tipis, like those of the northern Athapascan, were raised on poles set up in conical form, but were usually more commodious. They occasionally erect a larger structure of lattice work, covered with birch bark, in which 40 men or more can assemble for council, feasting, or religious rites.
The dead were usually buried in shallow graves, the body being covered with a pile of stones and earth to protect it from beasts of prey. The grave was lined with branches, some of the articles belonging to the deceased being placed in it, and in some sections a sort of canopy was erected over it. Where the deceased had distinguished himself in war his body was laid, according to Mackenzie, on a kind of scaffolding; but at a later date Hayden says they did not practice tree or scaffold burial.
Tattooing was almost universal among the Cree before it was abandoned through the influence of the whites. The women were content with having a line or two drawn from the corners of the month toward the angles of the lower jaw; but some of the men covered their bodies with lines and figures.
The Cree of the Woods are expert canoe men and the women lighten considerably their labors by the use of the canoe, especially where lakes and rivers abound.
A double-head drum and a rattle are used in all religious ceremonies except those which take place in the sweat house. Their religious beliefs are generally similar to those of the Chippewa.
In 1776, before smallpox had greatly reduced them, the population of the Cree proper was estimated at about 15,000. Most of the estimates during the last century give them from 2,500 to 3,000. There are now about 10,000 in Manitoba (7,000 under agencies) and about 5,000 roving in Northwest Territory; total, 15,000.