HOPI

(Moki, or Moqui)

 

Geographical region : Southeast ( Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico )

Lived normally in Pueblos.

Language : Uto-aztec branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock

 

 

The name Hopi comes from 'hopitu' which means 'the peaceful'.

A group of the Pueblo. In their cultural tradition the Hopi were connected with the Zuni and the Pueblo-Indians.

They speak the Hopi language, which belongs to the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock, at all their pueblos except Hano, where the language belongs to the Tanoan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock.

All these tribes lived in pueblos, villages build of multi-storey,rectangular houses. The name pueblo comes from the spanish word for 'village'.

The ancestors of the Hopi came to the northamerican South-West more than a thousand years before christ.

In 700 a.d. they had developed an agriculture of very high standard. They cultivated corn, beans, pumpkin and cotton.

In the 11th century they left their caves in the earth and began to build multi-storey houses made of bricks.

The first villages like 'Oraibi' and 'Mesa Verde' were founded.

They had the first contact with Coronado in the year 1541.

After this contact many spanish adventurers and missionaries appeared in their area.

In the year 1680 the Pueblo-Indians revolted against the Spanish.

During the rebellion the Hopi did withdraw to the distant mountains, where smaller villlages already did exist.

Each village is divided into clans and is governed by a chief, who is also the spiritual leader. Political and religious duties revolved around the clans.

The Badger clan, for instance, still conducts the kachina (fertility) ceremony, and the Antelope and Snake clans perform the famous snake dance at Walpi and other pueblos.

A Hopi tribal council and constitution was established in 1936, but internal dissension has limited tribal unity. See J. Kammer, The Second Long Walk (1980); S. Rushforth and S. Upham, A Hopi Social History (1992).

The center of their religous and cultural life was the belief in ghosts shown in the 'Kachina'-ceremony.

The Kachina were ghosts who symbolized for the Hopi the annual cicle of life : birth, death and rebirth.

In the idea of the Hopi the Kachina lived under the earth from october to april and for the rest of the year they walked around invisible among the humans.

The Hopi men did wear magnificent masks and dresses during the ceremony, to personify a certain ghost.

Kachina-puppets - antique or contemporary are very high in demand among northamerican indian art treasures.

All Hopi-men belong to a certain Kachina cult.

In some Hopi-villages did exist up to 6 different cults with their own 'Kiva' or church.

Not the white man did threaten the autonomy of the Hopi, but the Navaho.

Nearly the whole century there was war between the Hopi and the Navaho.

In the year 1882 an reservation was allocated to the Hopi, but the tribe was divided upon the question if to go there or not.

Only in the year 1906 all groups declared for moving to the reservation.

The conflict between the Hopi and the Navaho did last until the 20th century, because a part of the Navaho-reservation did belong to the Hopi-reservation and the other way around.

The population of the Hopi grew from 5000 people in the year 1900 to 8952 in the year 1985.

 

 

Addition:

 

Kachina

The spirit of the invisible life forces of the Pueblo of North America.

The kachinas, or kachinam, are impersonated by elaborately costumed masked male members of the tribes who visit Pueblo villages the first half of the year.

In a variety of ceremonies, they dance, sing, bring gifts to the children, and sometimes administer public scoldings.

Although not worshiped, kachinas are greatly revered, and one of their main purposes is to bring rain for the spring crops.

The term kachina also applies to cottonwood dolls made by the Hopi and Zuni that are exquisitely carved and dressed like the dancers.

Originally intended to instruct the children about the hundreds of kachina spirits, the finer carvings have become collector's items.

The name is also spelled katchina.

 

 

History of the Hopi People

Although their continual occupancy of the area since 500 C.E. gives Hopi people the longest authenticated history of occupation of a single area by any Native American tribe in the United States, most of their tutsqua has been expropriated.

At 1.6 million acres, the modern Hopi Reservation is a mere 9% of the original tutsqua, and the Hopi must still contend with illegal Navaho squatters.

People have used the Four Corners area for about 10 thousand years, although not much is known about the first 8 thousand years except that the people hunted locally available animals and gathered wild plants.

Beginning in about 1 C.E. an identifiable culture developed over the next 700 years.

The Hopi call these people Hisatsinom (People of Long Ago) although the public and archaeologists refer to them as Anasazi or San Juan Basketmakers.

By about 500 C.E. the Hisatsinom had learned to make pottery and developed elaborate pit houses of increasing size.

By 700 C.E. they were cultivating corn, beans and cotton and settling down to a more sedentary life in small settlements of two to five pit houses.

They occupied a vast territory stretching from the Grand Canyon to Toko'navi (Navaho Mountain), toward the Lukachukai Mountains near the New Mexico/Arizona border, and south to the Mogollon Rim.

At about 700 C.E. the first substantial presence in the Hopi mesa area was established on Antelope Mesa, east of present-day Keams Canyon.

Masonry walls came into use and aboveground dwellings replaced pit houses.

From 900 C.E. to 1100 C.E many small masonry villages appeared in the area but a subsequent drying of the climate over the next 200 years saw a clustering of the areas population into larger villages, such as Oraibi, Awatovi, Wupatki, Betatakin and the villages in Canyon De Chelly.

In the late 1200s a massive drought forced 36 of 47 villages on the Hopi mesas to be abandoned.

Following the drought, the 11 remaining villages grew in size, and increased population saw three new villages established.

While Hopi located their villages on mesas for defensive purposes, the villages were by no means the entirety of Hopi territory.

Land surrounding the mesas was divided between clans and families while certain areas were held in common for medicinal and religious purposes.

The Hopi established boundary markings hundreds of miles away from their villages to demarcate their ancestral homeland and use area, called the tutsqua.

It is estimated that the tutsqua once covered over 18 million acres.

By the 1500s Hopi culture was highly developed with an elaborate ceremonial cycle, complex social organization and advanced agricultural system.

They also participated in an elaborate trade network that extended throughout the Southwest and into Mexico.

The first outsiders to arrive in Hopi territory were Spanish explorers in 1540 under the leadership of Don Pedro de Tovar.

However, unable to find the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, the Spanish returned to New Mexico.

They maintained sporadic contact with the Hopi until 1592 when Catholic priests established a mission at Awatovi.

The priests spent the next nine decades attempting to suppress Hopi religion and gain Catholic converts.

Contact with the Spanish did have some positive aspects however.

The Spanish began to establish missions in 1629 at the pueblos of Awatobi, Oraibi, and Shongopovi.

These missions were destroyed in the revolt of 1680 and when the residents of Awatobi invited the missionaries to return, the other Hopi destroyed their village.

The pueblo of Hano was built by the Tewa, who had fled from the area of the Rio Grande valley that the Spanish reconquered.

Over this period the Hopi acquired horses, burros, sheep and cattle, and new fruits and vegetables were introduced into their diet.

The Spanish and later Europeans also introduced smallpox, which over the centuries, periodically reduced the populations on the mesas from thousands to hundreds in devastating epidemics.

In 1680 the Hopi joined the Puebloans of New Mexcio in the Pueblo Revolt, which forced the Spanish out of the Southwest.

Although the Spanish were successful in reconquering the pueblos of New Mexico, they were never able to firmly reestablish a foothold among the Hopi.

Following on the heels of the Spanish, Navahos began moving into Hopi territory in the late 1600's.

They distributed themselves throughout the area to graze their livestock and appropriated Hopi rangeland, farm fields and water resources.

Navahos also conducted frequent raids against Hopi villages.

Hopi fell under Mexican jurisdiction in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.

This lasted until 1848 when the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe de Hidalgo.

Hopi territory became part of the ever-expanding United States.

Although whites were exploring Hopi territory before 1848, during the 1850s and 1860s contact became more frequent as numerous government surveyors, investigators, missionaries and Bureau of Indian Affairs employees began exploring the area.

Contact between the Hopi and the US Government continued sporadically until 1870 when the first Hopi Indian agent was appointed, followed in 1874 by the establishment of the Indian Agency in Keams Canyon.

In 1882 President Chester Arthur established a 2.5 million acre Hopi Reservation through Executive Order.

This was followed by many years of effort to eradicate Hopi culture and religion and take their land.

Children were made to go to school, men and boys were forced to cut their hair, efforts to try and convert Hopi to Christianity intensified, and attempts were made to allot their land, even though traditionally no Hopi can own land.

Tension between those Hopi who accepted white ways and those who tried to resist them culminated in a devastating split in the village of Oraibi in 1906.

In 1934, a changing tide of sentiment towards Native Americans led to the Indian Reorganization Act, which codified the obligations of the US government to protect and preserve the rights of Native Americans.

Soon after, the Hopi Tribal Council was formed in 1936 in an effort to establish a single representative body of the Hopi with which the U.S. Government could do business.

While the Tribal Council represents Hopi people in matters external to the tribe, Hopi villages maintain quasi-independence.

Of the 12 villages, only 3 have adopted constitutions and established a truly western form of government.

The remaining 9 villages vary in the degree to which they adhere to the traditional Hopi form of governance.

Oraibi remains strictly traditional in its governing structure and does not accept funds or any other form of assistance from the Tribal government.

Other villages merge traditional with western governing policies by maintaining a village Kikmongwi (chief or leader) but also having representatives on Tribal Council.