Geographical region : southwestern part of California
Lived normally in straw-shacks, hogans, lodges made of straw
Language group : hoka-yuma
An important Yuman tribe which since early in the 19th century has lived with and below the Pima and from about lat. 35░ to the mouth of Rio Gila, south Arizona.
In 1775, according to GarcÚs, their rancherias extended about 40 miles along the Gila from about the month of the Hassayampa to the Aguas Calientes, although GarcÚs adds that "some of them are found farther down river."
They call themselves Pipatsje, 'people,' Maricopa being their Pima name.
Emory states that they have moved gradually from the Gulf of California to their present location in juxtaposition with the Pima, Carson having found them, as late as 1826, at the mouth of the Gila.
They joined the Pima, whose language they do not understand, for mutual protection against their kindred, but enemies, the Yuma, and the two have ever since lived peaceably together.
In 1775 the Maricopa and the Yuma were at war, and as late as 1857 the latter, with some Mohave and Yavapai, attacked the Maricopa near Maricopa Wells, south Arizona, but with the aid of the Pima the Maricopa routed the Yuma and their allies, 90 of the 93 Yuma warriors being killed.
After this disaster the Yuma never ventured so far up the Gila.
Heintzelman states, probably correctly, that the Maricopa are a branch of the Cuchan (Yuma proper), from whore they separated on the occasion of an election of chiefs (H. R. Ex. Doc. 76, 34th Cong, 1857).
Like the Pima, the Maricopa are agriculturists, and in habits and customs are generally similar to them.
Venegas (Dist. Cal., II, 182, 185, 192, 1759) states that about 6,000 Pima and Cocomaricopa lived on Gila River in 1742, and that they extended also to the Salado and the Verde; they are also said to have had some rancherias on the west side of Colorado River, in a valley 36 leagues long.
GarcÚs estimated he population at 3,000 in 1775.
There were only 350 under the Pima school superintendent, Arizona, in 1905.
By act of Feb. 28, 1859, a reservation was set apart for the Maricopa and the Pima on Gila River, Arizona; this was enlarged by Executive order of Aug. 31, 1876; revoked and other lands set apart by Executive order of June 14, 1879; enlarged by Executive orders of May 5, 1882, and Nov. 15, 1883.
No treaty was ever made with them.