Geographical region : California
Lived normally in earth-shacks, earth lodges
Language group : lutuamia
A Lutuamian tribe, forming the southern division of that stock, in south west Oregon.
The Modoc language is practically the same as the Klamath, the dialectic differences being extremely slight.
This linguistic identity would indicate that the local separation of the two tribes must have been comparatively recent and has never been complete.
The former habitat of the Modoc included Little Klamath lake, Modoc lake, Tule lake, Lost River valley, and Clear lake, and extended at times as far east as Goose lake.
The most important bands of the tribe were at Little Klamath lake, Tule lake, and in the valley of Lost River.
Frequent conflicts with white immigrants, in which both sides were guilty of many atrocities, have given the tribe an unfortunate reputation.
In 1864 the Modoc joined the Klamath in ceding their territory to the United States and removed to Klamath reservation.
They seem never to have been contented, however, and made persistent efforts to return and occupy their former lands on Lost River and its vicinity.
In 1870 a prominent chief named Kintpuash, commonly known to history as Captain Jack, led the more turbulent portion of the tribe back to the California border and obstinately refused to return to the reservation.
The first attempt to bring back the runaways by force brought on the Modoc war of 1872-73.
After some struggles Kintpuash and his band retreated to the lava-beds on the California frontier, and from January to April, 1873, successfully resisted the attempts of the troops to dislodge them.
The progress of the war had been slow until April of that year, when two of the peace commissioners, who had been sent to treat with the renegades, were treacherously assassinated.
In this act Kintpuash played the chief part.
The campaign was then pushed with vigor, the Modoc were finally dispersed and captured, and Kintpuash and 5 other leaders were hanged at Ft. Klamath in Oct., 1873.
The tribe was then divided, a part being sent to Indian Territory and placed on the Quapaw reservation, where they had diminished to 56 by 1905.
The remainder are on Klamath reservation, where they are apparently thriving, and numbered 223 in 1905.
Surrender of the Modoc
As more white settlers moved into the Oregon country, many Native Americans were displaced from their lands.
The Modoc people, refusing to stay on a reservation, fought the United States Army but were forced to surrender in 1873, an event depicted in this newspaper illustration.
Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Sahaptin-Chinook branch of the Penutian linguistic stock.
They lived in S.W. Oregon and N. California, particularly around Modoc Lake (also known as Lower Klamath Lake) and Tule Lake.
Modoc culture was similar to the culture of the Klamath, but the Modoc did not rely as heavily on the wokas, or water-lily seeds, for food.
There was considerable trouble between the Modoc and the early white settlers, with atrocities being committed on both sides.
The Modoc were finally constrained to go (1864) on the Klamath Reservation in Oregon, but most of the tribe was dissatisfied.
In 1870, Chief Kintpuash, or Captain Jack, led a group back to California and refused to return to the reservation.
The attempt to bring them back brought on the Modoc War (1872-73).
After the Modoc War, the Modoc people were divided; some were sent to Oklahoma (where a few remain), and some to the Klamath Reservation in Oregon.
The Modoc in Oregon share lands with the Klamath and Snake. See V. F. Ray, Primitive Pragmatists: The Modoc Indians of Northern California (1963), R. H. Dillea, Burnt-Out-Fires (1973).
(d. 1873), subchief of the Modoc and leader of the hostile group in the Modoc War (1872-73).
Jack, whose Modoc name was Kintpuash, had agreed (1864) to leave his ancestral home and live on a reservation with the Klamath.
He found it impossible to live on friendly terms with his former enemies, and after killing a Klamath medicine man, Jack and a group of followers left the reservation.
They resisted arrest (Nov., 1872) and fled into the lava beds in California.
Their strong defensive position frustrated numerous attempts by U.S. troops to dislodge them.
In April, 1873, a peace commission headed by Gen. Edward Richard Sprigg Canby met with Jack and several of his men.
At a prearranged signal, Jack shot Canby dead.
The army renewed its efforts to capture them and forced the Modoc to take refuge elsewhere.
The Modoc, who were tired of fighting, began to give themselves up, and on June 1, Captain Jack was captured.
He was taken to Fort Klamath, where on Oct. 3, 1873, he and five of his warriors were hanged for the murder of Canby. See biography by D. P. Payne (1938).
1872-73, series of battles between the Modoc and the U.S. army fought as a result of the attempt to force a group of the Modoc to return to the Klamath Reservation in S. Oregon.
Beginning in Nov., 1872, U.S. soldiers were engaged in sieges against the Modoc who were encamped in the lava beds near Tule Lake, Calif.
The soldiers, after losing battle after battle, increased their forces to 1,000 by March, 1873.
During peace negotiations Gen E. R. S. Canby and Eleazer Thomas were killed; the soldiers intensified their efforts to subdue the Modoc and finally in late May, 1873, Captain Jack and his much reduced force of 30 warriors were captured.
Captain Jack and five other leaders were hanged in October.
The Modoc War proved costly to both sides: 87 soldiers were killed and 83 were wounded.
Although the Modoc lost only 8 warriors and an unlisted number of women and children in the fighting, they were thereafter divided as a people.
The Modocs called themselves the Maklaks and were part of the Lulacas coast tribe before 1800.
Their language is part of the Lutumanian linguistic group.
At about 1800 they broke away from the Lulacas because of an argument about tribute to the chief. Chief Moadacus led his new tribe to the area near Lost River.
Captain Jack was the leader of the Modoc Indians who fought the U.S. Army for several months in 1872. However, he didn't have complete control over the band.
The Modocs stressed individual choice but worked as a group.
Jack would accept the choice of the whole band even if he didn't agree with it.
He argued against killing General Canby, but the majority of the warriors believed it would send the Army away, so Jack went along with the plan.
Jack had two wives, at least one daughter, and a sister, Queen Mary. They lived with him during the entire Modoc War.
The miners in Yreka called him Boston because he had a light complexion and almost appeared Caucasian.
Boston Charley was one of the four Modocs hung on October 3, 1873. He shot Rev. Thomas on April 11th.
He got his name because of a disfiguring scar on his face reportedly caused when he fell off a wagon when he was a young man.
Scarfaced Charley was one of the more militant of the Modocs and may have shot the first shot of the Modoc War at the Battle of Lost River.
He was the brother of Old Schonchin, one the the Chiefs of the Modoc Tribe.
He was hung with Captain Jack on October 3rd, 1873 for his part in the killing of General Canby and Rev. Thomas.
Black Jim was one of the four Modocs to hang on October 3rd.
He shot and tried to scalp Meacham when General Canby was shot.
After the Second Battle of the Stronghold, he and a few of the other Modocs left the two main bands of Modocs and tried to escape the U.S. Army.
They were captured by Oregon Volunteers.
Hooker Jim was one of the most violent and independent members of the Modoc Tribe.
After the Battle of Lost River he and a small group of Modocs took revenge on the settlers and killed 17.
When he was captured after the Second Battle of the Stronghold, he agreed to help the Army find Captain Jack in return for escaping the hangman's noose.
Barncho and Sloluck
They were at the scene when General Canby and Rev. Thomas were killed.
President Grant commuted their death sentences, but they were sent to prison on Alcatraz.
Barncho died of tuberculosis in prison, but Sloluck was released and sent to his tribe in Oklahoma in February 1878.