( Pani ,Pana ,Panana ,Panamahe ,Panimaha )
Geographical region : Plains and Prairie ( Nebraska )
Lived normally in Prairie-shacks
Language : Hoka-Caddo (Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock)
Subtribes are :
The tribes name maybe comes from the Caddo word 'pariki' which means horn. It could be, it's because of the strange behaviour in how they wear their front-hair.
The Pawnee lived in small villages which came close to the Mandan-Settlements.
They were farmers but as well they did hunt the buffalo.
The Pawnee had a complicated religion, which had been developed independant from those of the other tribes who lived in the plains.
Part of their belief was to make caught women a sacrifice to their gods to get a good harvest.
This ritual was abrogated by an unloved regulation which was made by Skidi-chief Patalesharo.
The Pawnee behaved friendly against the French but hostile to the Spanish.
The first Pawnee were met in the late 17 century.
After Louisiana was bought in the year 1803, good relationship started between the Pawnee and the United States.
They sold the biggest part of their land to the USA.
The Pawnee did content with a reservation in Kansas in the year 1857, but suffered from sickness and locust-torment, which destroyed their harvest.
They as well were attacked quite often by the Lakota-Sioux.
From 1872 to 1876 the Pawnee population went down from 2447 people to 1521.
In the year 1876 they were brought to a new reservation in the indian terretory.
16 years later this piece of land was partioned among the last 820 Pawnee or was sold to white settlers.
In the year 1985 there lived about 2000 Pawnee in the state of Oklahoma.
At one time the Pawnee lived in what is now Texas, but by 1541, when Coronado visited Quivira, they seem to have been settled in the valley of the Platte River in S. Nebraska. They then numbered some 10,000.
By the time French traders settled (1750) among them, the Pawnee had extended their territory to the Republican River in N. Kansas and the Niobrara River in N. Nebraska.
In 1806, Spanish soldiers visited the Pawnee just before the arrival of the expedition of Zebulon M. Pike.
In material culture the Pawnee resembled other Native Americans of the Plains area but they had an elaborate set of myths and rituals.
Their supreme god was Tirawa (the sun), who with Mother Earth conceived Morning Star. Morning Star was the rising and dying god of vegetation.
The Pawnee periodically sacrificed a young woman to Morning Star. This custom, one of the few examples of human sacrifice North of Mexico.
The Pawnee were hostile to the Sioux and the Cheyenne although friendly toward the Oto.
They were fierce fighters, but they never warred against the United States, even when treated unjustly by the government.
In fact the Pawnee provided scouts for the U.S. army in the Indian wars, as well as protecting the Union Pacific RR from the depredations of other Native Americans.
Pawnee population was reduced by wars with the Sioux and by the smallpox and cholera epidemics of the 1830s and 1840s.
By a series of treaties begun early in the 19th cent. the Pawnee ceded all of their land in Nebraska and in 1876 moved to a reservation in Oklahoma, where they were granted the right to own their land individually.
See Ralph Linton, The Sacrifice to the Morning Star by the Skidi Pawnee (1922); Waldo Wedel, An Introduction to Pawnee Archeology (1936); Gene Weltfish, The Lost Universe (1965); G. E. Hyde, The Pawnee Indians (rev. ed. 1973).