MAN AFRAID OF HIS HORSES, YOUNGER
( Tasunkkakokipapi )
Oglala Lakota Chief
Man Afraid of His Horses was an important leader of the Sioux during the 1860s and 1870s, at a time when Red Cloud's people forced the United States to abandon its forts along the Bozeman Trail en route to the gold rush country of eastern Montana.
The colloquial English translation of Man Afraid's name is really the opposite of its original Lakota meaning, which is "He Whose Horses Inspire Fear in Others."
He is also sometimes called Old Man Afraid of His Horses because his son was named after him.
A hereditary chief among the Oglala Lakota, Man Afraid of His Horses was a war chief under Red Cloud during the war for the Bozeman Trail in 1866-1868.
His son was a member of the Southern Cheyenne Warrior Society Crooked Lances and was allied with Red Cloud and his father.
After the Oglalas' surrender and confinement to reservations, Man Afraid of His Horses served as president of the Pine Ridge Indian Council.
He also made several trips to Washington, D.C., to advocate for the Oglalas.
At the time of the Wounded Knee massacre in 1890, Man Afraid of His Horses was working with American Horse for peace, against Short Bull's and Kicking Bear's advocacy of resistance via the Ghost Dance.